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Selection Process

Interviews: A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries.  


  • useful for determining if the applicant has requisite communicative or social skills which may be necessary for the job
  • interviewer can obtain supplementary information
  • used to appraise candidates’ verbal fluency
  • can assess the applicant’s job knowledge
  • can be used for selection among equally qualified applicants
  • enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there is compatability between the applicant and the employees
  • allows the applicant to ask questions that may reveal additional information useful for making a selection decision
  • the interview may be modified as needed to gather important information

  • subjective evaluations are made
  • decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the interview with the remainder of the interview used to validate or justify the original decision
  • interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics required for success on the job
  • research has shown disproportionate rates of selection between minority and non-minority members using interviews
  • negative information seems to be given more weight
  • not much evidence of validity of the selection procedure
  • not as reliable as tests


Minimize stereotypes. To minimize the influence of racial and sex stereotypes in the interview process, provide interviewers with a job description and specification of the requirements for the position. Interviewers with little information about the job may be more likely to make stereotypical judgments about the suitability of candidates than are interviewers with detailed information about the job. Job Related. Try to make the interview questions job related. If the questions are not related to the job, then the validity of the interview procedure may be lower. Train Interviewers. Improve the interpersonal skills of the interviewer and the interviewer’s ability to make decisions without influence from non-job related information. Interviewers should be trained to:

  • avoid asking questions unrelated to the job
  • avoid making quick decisions about an applicant
  • avoid stereotying applicants
  • avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics.
  • try to put the applicant at ease during the interview
  • communicate clearly with the applicant
  • maintain consistency in the questions asked

Summary of Interviews

In general, interviews have the following weaknesses:

  1. validity of the interview is relatively low
  2. reliability of the interview is also low
  3. stereotyping by interviewers, in general, may lead to adverse impact against minorities
  4. the subjective nature of this procedure may allow bias such as favoritism and politics to enter into the selection process
  5. this procedure is not standardized.
  6. not useful when large numbers of applicants must be evaluated and/or selected

Types of Interviews

  • Unstructured Interview Involves a procedure where different questions may be asked of different applicants.
  • Situational Interview Candidates are interviewed about what actions they would take in various job-related situations. The job-related situations are usually identified using the critical incidents job analysis technique. The interviews are then scored using a scoring guide constructed by job experts.
  • Behavior Description Interviews Candidates are asked what actions they have taken in prior job situations that are similar to situations they may encounter on the job. The interviews are then scored using a scoring guide constructed by job experts.
  • Comprehensive Structured Interviews Candidates are asked questions pertaining to how they would handle job-related situations, job knowledge, worker requirements, and how the candidate would perform various job simulations. Interviews tapping job knowledge offer a way to assess a candidate’s current level of knowledge related to relevant implicit dimensions of job performance (i.e., “tacit knowledge” or “practical intelligence” related to a specific job position)
  • Structured Behavioral Interview This technique involves asking all interviewees standardized questions about how they handled past situations that were similar to situations they may encounter on the job. The interviewer may also ask discretionary probing questions for details of the situations, the interviewee’s behavior in the situation and the outcome. The interviewee’s responses are then scored with behaviorally anchored rating scales.
  • Oral Interview Boards This technique entails the job candidate giving oral responses tojob-related questions asked by a panel of interviewers. Each member of the panel then rates each interviewee on such dimensions as work history, motivation, creative thinking, and presentation. The scoring procedure for oral interview boards has typically been subjective; thus, it would be subject to personal biases of those individuals sitting on the board. This technique may not be feasible for jobs in which there are a large number of applicants that must be interviewed.
Personality Tests: A selection procedure measure the personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.


  • can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high longevity within the organization
  • can reveal more information about applicant’s abilities and interests
  • can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for certain jobs

  • difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well defined
  • applicant’s training and experience may have greater impact on job performance than applicant’s personality
  • responses by applicant may may be altered by applicant’s desire to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection
  • lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same personality traits
  • cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of results
  • lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests


Select traits carefully An employer that selects applicants with high degree of ‘assertiveness’, ‘independence’, and ‘self-confidence’ may end up excluding females significantly more than males which would result in adverse impact. Select tests carefully Any tests should have been analyzed for (high) reliability and (low) adverse impact. Not used exclusively Personality tests should not be the sole instrument used for selecting applicants. Rather, they should be used in conjunction with other procedures as one element of the selection process. Applicants should not be selected on the basis of personality tests alone.

Summary of Personality Tests

  1. Since there is not a correct answer to personality tests, the scoring of the procedure could be questioned.
  2. Recent litigation has suggested that some items for these types of tests may be too intrusive (Soroka v. Dayton Hudson, 1991).
  3. This technique lacks face validity. In other words, it would be difficult to show how individual questions on certain personality measures are job related even if the overall personality scale is a valid predictor of job performance.
  4. Hooke and Krauss (1971) administered three (3) tests to sergeant candidates; the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Allport-Vemon-Lindzey Study of Values, and the Gough Adjective Check List. These tests did not differentiate candidates rated as good sergeant material from those rates as poorer candidates. The researchers concluded that the groups may have been so similar that these tests were not sensitive enough to differentiate them.

Types of Personality Tests

  1. Personal Attribute Inventory :Personal Attribute Inventory.An interpersonal assessment instrument which consists of 50 positive and 50 negative adjectives from Gough’s Adjective Check List. The subject is to select 30 which are most descriptive of the taregt group or person in question. This instrument was specifically designed to tap affective reactions and may be used in either assessing attitudes toward others or as a self-concept scale.
  2. Personality Adjective Checklist :A comprehensive, objective measure of eight personality styles (which are closely aligned with DSM-III-R Axis II constructs). These eight personality styles are: introversive, inhibited, cooperative, sociable, confident, forceful, respectful, and sensitive. This instrument is designed for use with nonpsychiatric patients and normal adults who read minimally at the eighth grade level. Test reports are computer-generated and are intended for use by qualified professionals only. Interpretive statements are based on empirical data and theoretical inference. They are considered probabilistic in nature and cannot be considered definitive. (2K )
  3. Cross-Culture Adaptability Inventory : Self-scoring six-point rating scale is a training instrument designed to provide feedback to individuals about their potential for cross-cultural effectiveness. It is most effective when used as part of a training program. It can also be used as a team-building tool for culturally diverse work groups and as a counseling tool for people in the process of cross-cultural adjustment. The inventory contains 50 items, distributed among 4 subscales: emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity, personal autonomy. Materials:

Sample Questions of Personality Tests

The following items are similar to items found on personality tests:

    Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always
1. I enjoy reading books of fiction.
2. I am more conservative than risk taking.
3. Sometimes I get very nervous.
4. I more often introduce myself to strangers than strangers introduce themselves to me.
5. I consider myself more of a doer than a thinker.
6. I like to set goals before beginning a project.
7. I like to follow schedules.
8. I think it is OK to bend the rules to complete a task on time.
9. I enjoy long weekends.


Cognitive Ability Measures

 Cognitive Abilties Tests: Paper and pencil or individualized assessment measures of an individual’s general mental ability or intelligence.  These tests may be categorized as:

  • General Intelligence Tests
  • Aptitude Tests
    • Mechanical Aptitude
    • Clerical Aptitude
    • Spatial Aptitude

Examples of Cognitive Ability Tests

  1. Employee Aptitude Survey A battery of employment tests designed to meet the practical requirements of a personnel office. Consists of 10 cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor ability tests. Nine of the 10 tests have 5-minute time limits. The remaining test requires two to ten minutes of testing time. Is a tool for personnel selection and a useful diagnostic tool for vocational guidance and career counseling. For situations in which it is desirable to retest an individual on an alternate form, special retest norms are provided for interpreting retest scores.

Test 1–Verbal Comprehension. Each item consists of one word in capital letters followed by four words in small letters. The respondent is to choose the word in small letters that means about the same as the word in capital letters. Scoring is the number right minus 1/3 the number wrong. Test 2–Numerical Ability. A battery of three tests: integers, decimal fractions and common fractions, each is timed separately. Designed to measure skill in the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Test 3–Visual Pursuit. Designed to measure the ability to make rapid scanning movements of the eyes without being distracted by other irrelevant visual stimulation. Involves the visual tracing of lines through an entangled network


Work Sample Tests

Work Sample Tests: Designed to have high content validity through a close relationship with the job. Work Sample tests are based on the premise that the best predictor of future behavior is observed behavior under similar situations. These tests require the examinee to perform tasks that are similar to those that are performed on the job.


  • high reliability
  • high content validity since work samples are a sample of the actual work performed on the job
  • low adverse impact
  • because of their relationship to the job, these tests are typically viewed more favorable by examinees than aptitude or personality tests
  • difficult for applicants to fake job proficiency which helps to increase the relationship between score on the test and performance on the job
  • Work Sample tests use equipment that is the same or substantially similar to the actual equipment used on the job

  • costly to administer; often can only be administered to one applicant at a time
  • although useful for jobs where tasks and duties can be completed in a short period of time, these tests have less ability to predict performance on jobs where tasks may take days or weeks to complete
  • less able to measure aptitudes of an applicant thus restricting the test to measuring ability to perform the work sample and not more difficult tasks that may be encountered on the job


Job Analysis Critical for identifying the content of the job from which samples will be developed. The Critical Incident Technique would be useful for identifying job duties/tasks that, if sampled on the test, would result in high predictive validity (criterion related validity). High Content Validity The test should be constructed with the intent of developing a highly content valid test. The content validity is build into the test. Equipment If specific equipment is used by incumbents on the job, try to incorporate all or some of that equipment on the test. Of couse, the safety of the applicant should take precedence over use of dangerous or unfamiliar tools or machines.

Types of Work Sample Tests

  1. Work-Sample Tests of Trainability These are tests through a period of instruction when the applicant is expected to learn tasks involved in a work sample. The work-sample tests of trainability are suitable for untrained applicants with no previous job experience. The predictive validity of this technique is low relative to other techniques and there is evidence the validity of the instrument may attenuate over time.
  2. Simulation of an Event These tests present the candidate with a picture of an incident along with quotations from those involved. The candidates then respond to a series of questions in which they write down the decisions they would make. The test is scored by subject matter experts.
  3. Low Fidelity Simulations These tests present applicants with descriptions of work situations and five alternative responses for each situation. Applicants choose the responses they would most likely and least likely make in each situation.

Work-samples Applicants perform observable, job-related behaviors


  • This technique involves applicants generating self-ratings on relevant performance Over time, self-assessments can be useful to clarify job performance expectations between employees and supervisors (Bassett & Meyer, 1968; Campbell & Lee, 1988), but initial discrepancies in understanding of what job requirements and performance dimensions between self- and supervisor ratings cause problems in a performance appraisal system (e.g., Ash, 1980).
  • Problems with this approach:
    1. Self-ratings show greater leniency, less variability, more bias, and less agreement with the judgments of others (Ash, 1980; Harris & Schaubroeck, 1988; Johns, Nilsen & Campbell, 1993; Thornton, 1980; van Vliet, Kletke, & Chakraborty, 1994; Williams & Levy, 1992).
    2. The predictive validity of this technique is questionable (Mabe & West, 1982). The predictors related to self-assessments and supervisor’s ratings may show a lack of congruence (e.g., self-efficacy related to self-ratings) (Lane & Herriot, 1990).
    3. Research suggests that applicants may not honestly respond to this type of technique (Love & Hughes, 1994).
    4. Self assessment scores tend to be inflated (Gupta & Beehr, 1982; Ash, 1980).
    5. Evidence suggests there is low face validity and perceived fairness associated with using this technique to promote law enforcement personnel.
    6. The evidence suggests low accuracy compared to objective measures (George & Smith, 1990; DeNisi & Shaw, 1977).
    7. Self-assessments may not correspond to ratings from other sources (e.g., peers) due to a lack of congruence on which specific job dimensions are to be assessed and the relative importance of specific job dimensions (Zalesny & Kirsch, 1989; Zammuto, London, & Rowland, 1982).
    8. Congruency in ratings between supervisors and employees may be affected by the decision of supervisors to agree with the self-assessments of employees to avoid potential employee relation conflicts (Farh, Werbel, & Bedeian, 1988).

Test Information – Online

To access this information, select a test from the pull-down list above. This information is provided by:



Recruitment Topic to Download

Recruitment Strategy 

Basic Thing for Recruitment









The Recruitment & Selection Process  

In  the earliest stages of an intervention, recruitment decisions often get made on the basis of who is standing in the right place at the right time with the right look on his/her face. As the situation matures, we have to think more carefully about picking the right people for longer-term roles including middle and senior management. The integrity of the recruitment and selection process helps to ensure sustainability by building a strong and balanced team, demonstrating the organization’s neutrality, promoting its good name and serving as an example for partners. You may find that one of the first roles you need to fulfill is a HR administrator to help achieve these goals.

Here are the major stages in this cycle:  

1. Defining the Requirement  Decide what vacancy you have. If you need to fill a new role quickly you might find it helpful to adapt one of the models provided here. Task analysis: Draw up a detailed list of tasks that the person will have to do. This helps in determining the qualities and qualifications genuinely required for the job. Job description: produce an outline of the broad responsibilities (rather than detailed tasks) involved in the job. Person specification: decide what skills, experience, qualifications and attributes someone will need to do the job as defined in the task analysis and job description. 

 2. Attracting applications  Your file of previous applicants can be a good place to start. Advertising: phrase your announcement in a way that makes clear what the job involves and the type of person needed. Avoid any stipulations, which could be seen as discriminatory e.g. applying an age restriction, which is not necessary. You can display a notice internally and/or at your gate, in the local newspaper or with a message on the local radio station. Application Form: a well-designed form can elicit information about the person’s ability and willingness to do the job. Do not ask for irrelevant information. Make it clear on the form that applicants should consider the points in the job description and person description when applying. Allow enough space on the form for applicants’ answers, and indicate whether continuation sheets can be used. State clearly on the form the closing date for applications. For senior positions a supporting letter or CV may also be required; if this is the case indicate the kind of information sought. Background information: provide applicants with clear, up-to-date and accurate information about the organization, its work, its priorities and the job. Clearly indicate the closing date for applications and the short listing and interview dates.

3. Selection  Select your candidate. Be objective and unbiased. Choose the person who best fits your person specification. Short listing: assess applications on the basis of the person specification (standard forms can be very helpful at this stage). Guard against bias and discrimination -ensure that you select for interview those who match the specifications, regardless of age, sex, race etc, and that the specifications are not themselves discriminatory.

Interviews: Interview your short-listed candidates. Remember that your job is not only to assess the best candidate for the job, but also to create a great impression of your organization.  The amount and quality of the information that you establish will be largely due to the effectiveness of your questions. Use open questions (e.g. tell me about…how do you…why did you…talk me through…) and probe from the general to the specific. Avoid any questions, which could be considered discriminatory eg asking only female candidates who looks after their young children. If you think such a question is relevant -ask it of all candidates who have children.

4. Candidate assessments:  The interview will provide you with some informationbut check it out before offering a job. Ways in which you could do this include:• Ask the candidate to show you examples of previous work, do a presentation, a case study, some tests or full assessment. Tests can be done before the interview or after the interview. It depends on the number of candidates being interviewed and the type of job. • Taking up references: You must have the specific permission of the applicant to do so, particularly if you wish to contact their current employer. If you need them quickly, try phoning.

5. Making a Job Offer  If you think you have found the right candidate, it’s time to make  the   job-offer. For your successful candidate:

·        Prepare and send the appropriate documentation·        Make up the employee’s personnel file; and ·        Arrange the induction plan.   

6. Induction It help your new recruit to settle in quickly and become productive as soon apossible.Legal Considerations.All documentation should be in an official language of the country in which you are operating. It is important to consult a local lawyer to ensure that your contracts are compliant with all applicable laws. Now, Let us see a little more in detail how this process can be divided into stages and how best to execute the process.

 The Recruitment Process: Stages The recruitment process begins when you know you need someone new in the School orDepartment, either because an existing staff member has left, or because there is new work to be done. It doesn’t finish until after the appointment has been made and you have reflected on any changes that you would make in future recruitments. 

 Recruitment Activities: • Identify Vacancy • Prepare Job Description and person Specification • Advertise • Managing The Response • Short-listing • References • Arrange Interviews • Conduct The Interview • Decision Making • Convey The Decision • Appointment Action Vacancy is known in two situations (generally):  

Effective Recruitment

  • Is recruitment process running systematically?
  • Is it based on the job description and manpower planning?
  • Are the line managers happy with the speed and responsiveness of the HRD?
  • Are the line managers happy with the quality of recruitment process and the candidates selected?
  • Are the candidates given complete information regarding their jobs at the time of interview?
  • Are the promises made during interview translated into actions later?
  • Do we have any uniform policy for emoluments and appointment levels?
  • Are the candidates interviewed at the scheduled time without any delay and treated fairly well?
  • Have we lost any candidates due to delay in sending offer letter?
  • Is the participation from line managers in the recruitment and selection process adequate
  • Is any weightage being given to the qualification and experience of the candidate?
  • Does more round of interview that a candidate has to face before selection ensure considerable objectivity in selection process?
  • Are the line managers and HR personnel trained in recruitment and selection techniques?
  • Are the facilities and seating arrangements given for the candidates visiting the company for recruitment?
  • Are we giving the replacement on the same skill set, knowledge and experience before a person leaves? 
  • Suggest the way to computerize the recruitment process to save lot of time. 
  • IS feed back given about the status of candidates to line managers?



Relieving Letter


This is Certify that Ms. XYZ has worked with us as “Executive-Recruitment” From May 10th ,2006 to June 9th ,2007 Subsequent to her Resignation DT June 06,2007, She has been relieved from her duties W.e.f Jun 09,2007.

With Best Wishes,

Yours Sincerely,

For XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

Director – Operations

HR JokesBelow are four (4) questions and a bonus question. You have to answer them instantly. You can’t take your time, answer all of them immediately . OK? Let’s find out just how clever you really are….First Question:You are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?

Answer: If you answered that you are first, then you are absolutely wrong! If you overtake the second person and you take his place, you are second! Try not to screw up next time.

Now answer the second question, but don’t take as much time as you took for the first question, OK ?

Second Question:

If you overtake the last person, then you are…?

Answer: If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again. Tell me, how can you overtake the LAST Person?

You’re not very good at this, are you?

Third Question:

Very tricky arithmetic! Note: This must be done in your head only. Do NOT use paper and pencil or a calculator. Try it.

Take 1,000 and add 40 to it. Now add another 1,000. Now add 30. Add another 1,000. Now add 20. Now add another 1,000. Now add 10. What is the total?

Did you get 5,000?

The correct answer is actually 4,100. If you don’t believe it, check it with a calculator! Today is definitely not your day, is it?

Maybe you’ll get the last question right…. ….Maybe.

Fourth Question:

Mary’s father has five daughters: 1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono. What is the name of the fifth daughter?

Did you Answer Nunu? NO! Of course it isn’t. Her name is Mary.

Read the question again!